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BackgroundMotor complications are well recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their reported prevalence varies and functional impact has not been well studied.ObjectivesTo quantify the presence, severity, impact and associated factors for motor complications in PD.MethodsAnalysis of three large prospective cohort studies of recent-onset PD patients followed for up to 12 years. The MDS-UPDRS part 4 assessed motor complications and multivariable logistic regression tested for associations. Genetic risk score (GRS) for Parkinson's was calculated from 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms.Results3343 cases were included (64.7% male). Off periods affected 35.0% (95% CI 33.0, 37.0) at 4-6 years and 59.0% (55.6, 62.3) at 8-10 years. Dyskinesia affected 18.5% (95% CI 16.9, 20.2) at 4-6 years and 42.1% (38.7, 45.5) at 8-10 years. Dystonia affected 13.4% (12.1, 14.9) at 4-6 years and 22.8% (20.1, 25.9) at 8-10 years. Off periods consistently caused greater functional impact than dyskinesia. Motor complications were more common among those with higher drug doses, younger age at diagnosis, female gender, and greater dopaminergic responsiveness (in challenge tests), with associations emerging 2-4 years post-diagnosis. Higher Parkinson's GRS was associated with early dyskinesia (0.026 ≤ P ≤ 0.050 from 2 to 6 years).ConclusionsOff periods are more common and cause greater functional impairment than dyskinesia. We confirm previously reported associations between motor complications with several demographic and medication factors. Greater dopaminergic responsiveness and a higher genetic risk score are two novel and significant independent risk factors for the development of motor complications.

Original publication




Journal article


Movement disorders clinical practice

Publication Date





686 - 697


School of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.


Humans, Parkinson Disease, Dyskinesias, Dystonia, Antiparkinson Agents, Severity of Illness Index, Follow-Up Studies, Prospective Studies, Aged, Middle Aged, Female, Male